what is cause of fog.

Fog can be considered a cloud at ground level. The processes forming it, however, are usually different from those that form clouds. Like clouds, fog is made up of condensed water droplets which are the result of the air being cooled to the point (actually, the dewpoint) where it can no longer hold all of the water vapor it contains. For clouds, that cooling is almost always the result of rising of air, which cools from expansion. But for fog, which occurs next to the ground, there are usually other reasons for this cooling. For instance, rain can cool and moisten the air near the surface until fog forms.

To read more, please visit:

Weather Questions

what is personal carbon allownce? is this scheme in the madhya pardesh

Personal carbon allowance is a policy idea that aims to reduce a nation’s overall carbon emissions by handing to individuals rights and responsibilities for their own emissions. It is a scheme designed to manage household energy use and personal travel, each adult would be allocated an equal annual carbon allowance. Units of this carbon allowance would have to be paid out when paying household energy bills or filling up the car. Those using less than their annual allowance could sell their surplus units, while those needing more would have to buy them. This way, the polluter would pay – a key environmental maxim.

This policy idea is still in an early stage. In the international level, it has been introduced only as pilot projects. In India, the policy has not been implemented anywhere yet since the states are currently working on climate-proofing and mitigation & adaptation strategies. Hence, no it is not in Madhya Pradesh yet.

To read more on Personal carbon allowance, please visit:

  1. The Conversation: Radical vision of personal carbon allowances could be the answer to greenhouse gas glut
  2. The Guardian: Personal carbon allowances - a 'big idea that never took off'
  3. Quiet-Environmentalist: The Pros & Cons of Carbon Allowances
What is the impact of climate change on rural poverty?

Climate change is the change in the atmosphere due to the burning of fossil fuels. Climate change affects the seasons and the weather. The rural population are dependent on natural resources. The predominant livelihood source of the rural poor is agriculture, fisheries, animal husbandry and the forest.

When there is a change in the atmosphere, natural resources are massively impacted. The effects of climate change are not uniform, there is drought like situation in one part whereas incessant rainfall in other parts. This kind of situation has heavy impact on natural resources which constraints the livelihood sources of the rural poor. That is why it has been stated in the Madhya Pradesh State Action Plan on Climate Change (MPSAPCC) that the rural poor are the most vulnerable from climate change.


How does climate change impact on human beings

The mere existence of human beings on planet Earth is only possible because of the multiple atmospheric cycles functioning simultaneously. Climate change is disrupting the cycles. With increasing pollutants, the atmospheric cycles are getting affected. Hence, little or no rain, hot air (loo), flash floods, etc.  

With the industrial revolution, the atmosphere is reeling under heavy pollution. On top of that, modernisation has led to massive deforestation. The amount of carbon emissions that is being released into the atmosphere is leading to climate change.

Climate change is already impacting human beings. Extended summers, erratic monsoons, colder winters are the signs of climate change and have impacted agriculture, forests, fisheries, animal husbandry, & health. Climate change is claiming people’s lives and property. The recent flood of Kashmir can be a proper example of the impact of climate change.

Climate change will continue impacting human beings until and unless, we, the human beings keep a check on our actions and help in restoring the environment


What are climate scenarios and projections?

Climate scenarios and projections are two important instruments in the study of climate change. The Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have mostly based their scientific reports in these two instruments.  

According to a working paper, titled ‘Climate Scenarios: What we need to know and how to generate them’ authored by Heru Santoso, Monica Idinoba, & Pablo Imbach,  climate scenarios have been developed to investigate the potential consequences of anthropogenic climate change.

Climate scenarios often serve as input to impact models and are commonly constructed through projections. These projections are the response of the climate system to emission scenarios of greenhouse gases and aerosols.

According to World Meteorological Organization (WMO), a climate projection is usually a statement about the likelihood that something will happen several decades to centuries in the future if certain influential conditions develop. In contrast to a prediction, a projection specifically allows for significant changes in the set of boundary conditions, such as an increase in greenhouse gases, which might influence the future climate.