Agriculture and Horticulture
About 70% of the rural population of Madhya Pradesh is engaged in agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, fisheries and dairy development. This sector contributes about 30% to the State Net Domestic Product. Out of the total number of holdings, 65% holdings belong to small and marginal farmers occupying only 26% of cultivable land. Horticultural crops occupy nearly 3.25% of the total cropped area of the state. Agriculture has a two way relationship with Climate Change. One, where the activities related to agriculture add Green House Gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere and other where climatic variations impact the agriculture sector tremendously. Burning of agricultural residues in fields and excessive use of energy intensive water pumps lead to emissions while traditional method of paddy cultivation may result in methane emissions adding to Green House Gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. Extreme events like frost, excess rain, and high temperatures have resulted in huge losses in productivity. Shifting of rainfall pattern seems to have affected the cropping patterns. Mono-cropping reduces the crop diversity and adversely affects the soil health. The horticultural crops are also sensitive towards changing climate. Availability of water is a major constraint for horticultural crops, particularly in drought like situations. Storms and hail storms induce damages in horticultural crops during flowering and fruit bearing stage. Rise in temperature can lead to pest emergence earlier, which may make plants tender towards the insect attacks. Series of new diseases have also been observed in fruit plants due to change in climatic parameters. Heavy rains also impose physical damage on trees and fruit plants.
- Promote soil and water conservation technologies
- Promote dry land agriculture and horticulture
- Plan for cropping systems suitable for each agro-climatic zone
- Introduce policies for managing climate risks for a sustainable productivity
- Enhancing dissemination of new and appropriate technologies and strengthening research
- Creation of agriculture information management including information on climate forecast
- Additional impetus to mechanization and accessibility to markets
- Creation of rural business hubs for diversification of livelihoods
- Capacity building of communities on sustainable harvesting, water management, use of fertilisers, sustainable agri-residue management etc
- Promotion to Climate Change relevant research and development
- Capacity building to integrate Climate Change concerns
Project Report - Indigenous Knowledge in Practice Confirmation of Climate Change and its effects through Practitioners’ Knowledge related to Agriculture
Crop cultivation in India is primarily based on the traditional knowledge that is
passed on from generation to generations. The traditional knowledge systems are
based on wisdom, experience, often tested over a long period, adapted to local culture
and environment. Sometimes these are hard to accept for the scientific communities. In
the race of commercialization of agriculture and modern crop cultivation practices, the
age-old traditional practices of crop cultivation gradually lost the significance. Thus, the
documentation of adaptation measures based on traditional practices for crop cultivation
is need of the hour. Globally, there is wide recognition that climate change adaptation
should be integrated with national development to enable coherence and synergy with
the sustainable development of a country. Hence, it is imperative to document the
indigenous knowledge of crop cultivation and establish a correlation that the climate
change has its effect on shifting / deviation of agricultural activities. A research project
was executed at IIFM in five districts of Madhya Pradesh with DST grant through State
Knowledge Management Centre on Climate Change (SKMCCC), Environmental
Planning & Coordination Organization (EPCO), Bhopal. The study attempted to
document the peoples’ practical knowledge and developed language for communication
to make them understand the climate change is influencing agricultural activities and
suggested a long-term strategy based on traditional knowledge for attaining stability in
Based on the study simple but robust observations for crop cultivation were
documented which could be further investigated at the agricultural universities; research
stations and Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVKs) so that a firm scientific base could be built
based on the traditional practices in addition to adaptation of modern technologies of
The outcome of the study, once disseminated, helps the farmers to better
understand the climate change and the strategies required at their level to tackle the
climate change consequences...
CLIMATE CHANGE, AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED SECTORS
Let’s Beat Climate Change: A Guidebook with 25 Adaptation Methods
This report features adaptation methods that have been chosen by communities in Bundelkhand following a participatory campaign. Some of the methods include changing to drought-resistant crop varieties, using new agro-technologies, rain water harvesting and tapping alternative source of livelihoods. The adaptation methods proved to be extremely effective and brought about a behavioural change amongst the communities that led to change in the lives of the local communities.
Monsoon Action Plan – 2015 : Village Level Contingency Plans for Climate Resilient Agriculture
The Technology Demonstration Component of NICRA, implemented by 121 Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs), addresses climate vulnerabilities in identified 50 drought-prone target districts spread across 17 States. The KVK/Districts identified in Madhya Pradesh are:
The monsoon action plan essentially deals with village level contingency measures in field crops to tackle likely scenarios of delay in onset of monsoon and deficit rainfall situations. The contingency plan for the normal crops in the village entails demonstration of short duration varieties of the main crop in case of delay in planting, and demonstration of alternate crop in case of delay beyond cutoff sowing date for e.g., 15th July or later. Also, to cope with deficit rainfall conditions, demonstration of several drought proofing contingency measures related to crop, soil moisture, nutrient and water management are included in the plans.
State Level Training Workshop On Mainstreaming Climate Change in Sectoral Planning of Madhya Pradesh SECTOR AGRICULTURE
Under the DFID supported SPMG (Strengthening Performance Management in Governance) initiative, Development Alternatives in association with Environmental Planning and Coordination Organisation (EPCO) and Madhya Pradesh State Knowledge Management Centre on Climate Change (MP SKMCCC), organized a one day state level training workshop on “Mainstreaming Climate Change Concerns in Agriculture Sector of Madhya Pradesh” on 22th April 2015. It highlighted the issues, concerns and strategies for mainstreaming climate change adaptation in agriculture in the state of Madhya Pradesh. This workshop aimed to build perspectives which can further support different programmes of agriculture with climate change planning. Issues like devising indicators for measuring sustainable climate resilient agriculture practices and understanding the financial markets for sustainable agriculture and what kind of adaptive and mitigation practices in agriculture can reduce the impact of climate change.
National Action Plan on Climate Change
The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) has been developed keeping in mind the UNFCCC objectives and a sustainable development path for the country. There are 8 national missions for implementation of the NAPCC:
- National Solar Missions,
- National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency,
- National Mission on Sustainable Habitat,
- National Water Mission
- National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem
- National Mission for a Green India
- National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
- National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change
Workshop on "Climate Change and Agriculture Issues in MP"
Proceedings of Workshop on “Water sector and Climate Change Issues”
The State Knowledge Management Centre on Climate Change (SKMCCC) organised a workshop on “Water Sector and Climate Change Issues” at the Narmada Conference Hall, EPCO on 21st June, 2014. As a process towards ensuring the implementation of State Action Plan on Climate Change (SAPCC), the SKMCCC has constituted climate change working groups (CCWGs) within departments on direction from the State Steering Committee on Climate Change headed by Chief Secretary.
The half day workshop was convened with an objective to apprise the CCWG of water resources department about the SKMCCC and expectations from the CCWG. The opportunity was utilised to share the support that SKMCCC can offer to the CCWG.
Promoting sustainable governance of natural resource commons in Mandla
The case study on ‘Promoting Sustainable Governance of Natural Resource Commons in Mandla District, Madhya Pradesh’ is about efficient management of commons for sustainable development and natural resource conservation. The project area in Mandla is nestled in the Satpura hill ranges in the basins of three small tributaries of River Narmada namely Gaur, Baiyar and Matiyari. The district population is predominately tribal, mainly Gonds and Baigas. The region is abundant in natural resources but has been facing a series of issues due to the nature of agricultural practices that have been followed.
The programme carried out in eighty villages in Nivas and Bicchia blocks with the twin objectives of improving local livelihoods and conserving natural resources, revealed that high degree of forest degradation is mainly engendered by injudicious land use practices and lack of protection. A series of farm-based interventions have been mounted to improve agricultural practices despite the low productivity of the farmlands. Introduction of millet and ragi crops suitable to the local climate created opportunity for villagers to build seed reserves. Natural resources accounting approach has led to increase in forest cover and diversification of crops.
The ecological conservation being achieved through these activities will ensure that the villages develop the capacity to be prepared for the vagaries of climate change. Simple measures like agro forestry and introduction of climate-hardy crops have a deep impact in building complex biodiversity in the region and, thereby, binding and strengthening the ecosystem closer together against such changes.
The programme undertaken by Foundation for Ecological Security (FES) through GIZ support has shown the way. The decentralised village-institution model is unique to make local communities a partner in the efforts towards conservation. Impact has been measured in terms of prevention of soil erosion, increase in fodder, increased area of cultivation and growth of alternative crops.
Although challenges regarding encroachment of land and weak infrastructural facilities do exist, yet the approach has helped in expanding the ecological profile in implemented villages. Its lesson is that, to overcome prevailing resource intensive practices leading to loss of biodiversity, there is a need to involve local panchayats. It is becoming essential for policy makers to help the local community in securing their tenurial rights. Panchayats as authorised village institutions can train local population, provided government ensures financial resources for such activities.
Indo-UK Collaborative Research Programme on the Impacts of Climate Change on India: Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment for Madhya Pradesh
The Indo-UK collaborative research programme was undertaken by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Government of India, and the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), Government of UK, to study climate change issues and devise measures to deal with their serious effects. The results of this study indicate that Madhya Pradesh is getting affected by climate change.
Aimed to prepare a climate change adaptation plan for the two agro-climatic regions of Madhya Pradesh and to integrate the adaptation plan with the existing programmes and schemes in the states, this report suggest that adaptation to climate change needs to be supported and catalyzed mainly within the agricultural system of Madhya Pradesh.
It emphasizes on enhancing water use efficiency to increase availability and accessibility to water; establishing knowledge platform for policy formulation and community empowerment; blending formal and informal science for enhanced delivery on ground; increasing access to appropriate technology for adaptation to climate change and providing weather-based crop insurance.
Eco-restoration and Institution Strengthening
The eco-restoration and institution strengthening project has been implemented in the Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh jointly by Climate Change Adaptation in Rural Areas of India (CCA RAI) and the Foundation for Ecological Security (FES).
This document details how the project has addressed livelihoods of indigenous communities in Mandla, whose dependence on small-scale farming, fishing and forest produce has been impacted by recent changes in rainfall and temperature and its influence on biodiversity. The stress has been compounded by low literacy levels and limited assets retarding the adaptive capacities of the local population.
This project aims to restore the ecology of degraded forested landscapes by improving the biodiversity of these landscapes, reducing soil erosion, and strengthening the collective efforts of village institutions and thus providing a greater variety of choices of livelihood, leading to food security. Despite the challenge posed by increasing climate variability, the project has also aimed to improve gains from agriculture.
Madhya Pradesh State Action Plan on Climate Change - Sector Policy Brief: Agriculture
The sustainable development of agriculture, horticulture, fisheries and agri-business has a special place in the development policies of the Madhya Pradesh government, given especially that seven of every 10 people in the State rely on some form of farm or allied activities for their livelihoods. This policy brief, produced as part of the Madhya Pradesh State Action Plan on Climate Change, elaborates the path to climate resilient agriculture in the State and the challenges in the way of adapting.
Farmers in Madhya Pradesh are mostly smallholders with few livelihood options and vulnerable to climatic shocks. Agriculture also suffers as groundwater resources are severely depleted. The State has an ‘Organic Farming Policy’ with the intent of using local knowledge to build sustainable livelihoods while conserving natural resources.
Yet, the effective transfer of information and investment remains a significant challenge. Measures are also being taken to improve credit and loan facilities for farmers and innovative climate-related finance schemes are being put in place to help them hedge against the risks of climate change.