CLIMATE CHANGE AND WATER RESOURCES
CLIMATE CHANGE AND FORESTS IN MADHYA PRADESH
CLIMATE CHANGE, AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED SECTORS
Madhya Pradesh State Action Plan on Climate Change - Sector Policy Brief: Water Resources
This policy brief document stresses on the urgency for understanding the implications of climate change on the State’s water resources and to develop and introduce strategies to improve water use efficiency and infrastructure.
Groundwater in Madhya Pradesh is an important resource which is overexploited due to lack of alternatives and awareness. The policy brief focuses on developing storage networks to save water and make people self-reliant.
Analysis of observed rainfall data in Madhya Pradesh over the past 50 years indicates falling annual rainfall totals. Simultaneously, the incidence of heavy precipitation events that lead to rapid run -off, is increasing. Both the trends adversely affect the rate of groundwater recharge. Since groundwater provides two-thirds of the water used for irrigation and 95 per cent of drinking water, groundwater depletion is a major cause for concern.
Madhya Pradesh State Action Plan on Climate Change - Sector Policy Brief: Urban Administration and Transport
This policy brief dwells on making public transport more effective and user friendly and to strengthen urban development and transport management.
Cities are major energy consumers. Excessive or faulty cooling systems, poor lighting technology and electric power transmission and distribution losses account for energy wastage. In 2009–2010, technical inefficiencies and theft accounted for nearly a third of Madhya Pradesh’s transmission and distribution losses.
Madhya Pradesh has a large and growing population, which causes many environmental, economic and social challenges for urban planners. As cities have grown, the management of solid and liquid waste has become a major challenge. Moreover, ‘heat islands’ develop in city centres due to the loss of green cover, causing health problems as well as damage to infrastructure. At the domestic and business levels, energy intensive air-conditioning and cooling further contributes to climate change.
Madhya Pradesh State Action Plan on Climate Change - Sector Policy Brief: Renewable Energy
This document illustrates how a renewable energy CDM project generates energy from a village dairy through a systematic anaerobic treatment plant which captures, stores and utilises methane for electricity production. It contributes to climate change mitigation by reducing methane emissions through improved dairy waste management as well as providing an alternative to fossil fuel-based power sources.
Madhya Pradesh has a rich natural resource base with enormous possibilities for renewable energy generation, with its topographic and climatic conditions favouring development of wind and solar energy. The present policy brief addresses climate change concerns to limit environmental damage and promote sustainable development.
Though there is huge potential for further exploring wind, biomass, solar and small-scale hydroelectric sources of energy, renewable energy sources make up only 2.95 per cent of the total installed capacity of the State.
Madhya Pradesh State Action Plan on Climate Change - Sector Policy Brief: Rural Development
Seven out of every ten people in Madhya Pradesh live in its villages, relying on agriculture, forestry, livestock and fisheries for their livelihoods. Their low levels of income and dependence on natural resources makes rural people particularly vulnerable to environmental degradation: unsustainable harvesting practices, marginal lands that preclude advanced agricultural practices, deforestation and deteriorating soil and water quality make the livelihoods of landless labourers, small farmers, forest product collectors, construction workers and household-based artisans ever more insecure.
This policy brief explores the promotion and the integration of appropriate improvement strategies for rural areas and to achieve holistic development model for the State.
Studies suggest that climate change will have major impacts on the rural sector. Shifting cropping patterns, changing vegetation types, the disturbed distribution of rains and longer dry spells are just some of the challenges to be faced by farming communities. The level and intensity of environmental events associated with climate change – extended drought, flooding and spread of accidental fire – will particularly affect small-scale and marginal farmers, who have little access to the technologies and services that might help them to adapt.
Rural communities are also particularly vulnerable, given their direct and heavy dependence on the natural resources threatened by climate change. This vulnerability means that there is no margin for error in the planning and implementation of adaptation strategies as climate change is expected to take a heavy toll on forests, water, agriculture, energy and health.
Madhya Pradesh State Action Plan on Climate Change - Sector Policy Brief: Industry
This Policy Brief on the industrial sector outlines the strategies to strengthen development planning towards building a more climate-resilient State. It aims to promote the integration of appropriate adaptation/mitigation strategies into the State’s development policies and programmes.
Madhya Pradesh has great potential for sustainable development and industrial growth to go hand in hand. Its central location in the country makes Madhya Pradesh a major transport hub. Though industrial contributions to global warming and environment degradation are well documented, pro-industry and pro-business economic policies have often been at the expense of the environment.
Madhya Pradesh’s industrial sector is the largest energy consumer. In the context of intense global concern over energy supply and demand and also climate change, it is imperative that industrial use of energy should be efficient and sustainable. Concerns also exist about the potential adverse impacts of climate change on industries, especially those that depend on the availability of natural resources that are threatened by climate change.
Madhya Pradesh State Action Plan on Climate Change - Sector Policy Brief: Human Health
This policy brief examines the impact of climate change that the State will witness in the coming decades in all areas of human health, including the availability of food and safe drinking water, vulnerability to disease and disasters, and access to health care and services as infections and other health conditions get aggravated by variations in temperature, precipitation and humidity.
For instance, it is feared that climate change will cause the transmission window for malaria to go up to eight months due to the projected 2.5°C rise in temperature by 2050 – and the scenario is no different for dengue and chikungunya.
With anticipated excessive flooding and retention of stagnant water comes the risk of water borne diseases. Heat stress occurs with temperatures in excess of 40oC persisting over a long period of time. Both water borne diseases and heat stress is expected to bring morbidity and mortality. These, together with increasing air pollution caused pulmonary disorders, climate change threatens to impact human health in unprecedented ways.
Madhya Pradesh State Action Plan on Climate Change - Sector Policy Brief: Forests and Biodiversity
The policy brief provides a clue to how rising temperatures and extreme weather events increase the vulnerability of indigenous species to invasive plant and animal species due to resource scarcity and increased competition. This affects the flora and fauna which in turn has an impact on the 20% of the State’s tribal population who live in forests and depends on them for livelihoods.
An assessment of the impact of climate change on forest ecosystems in Madhya Pradesh indicates that, in the short-term, about 23 per cent of the State’s forested area could be affected while nearly 50 per cent could be impacted over the longer term.
The document suggests that the changing climate could take a heavy toll on forest biodiversity and the availability of forest resources, such as fuel, wood, fodder and non-timber forest products – all important sources of livelihood. In addition, climate change may lead to increased migration and further man-animal conflicts.
Madhya Pradesh State Action Plan on Climate Change - Sector Policy Brief: Energy Sector
Alive to the fact that energy drives economic growth, and fast-developing Madhya Pradesh suffers a shortage of electricity, the production and use of energy is the main focus of the Madhya Pradesh State Action Plan on Climate Change (SAPCC).
This policy brief on the energy sector portrays the government’s aim to promote the integration of appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies into its development policies and programmes. It outlines the strategies to strengthen development planning and build a more climate-resilient State.
The document details how the SAPCC is strategising a two-pronged approach to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector: through efficient electricity generation and by increasing the proportion of renewable energy as part of the entirepower generated in the State.
The document also enumerates the challenges to develop a cross-sectoral approach to energy generation as it details that coal-based thermal power contributes 51.4 per cent of electricity generation capacity in Madhya Pradesh.
Madhya Pradesh State Action Plan on Climate Change - Sector Policy Brief: Cross Cutting Issues
Aiming to promote the integration of appropriate climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies, the Madhya Pradesh State Action Plan outlines strategies to integrate diverse sectors like agriculture, industry, human health, animal well-being, urban life and rural livelihoods.
This policy brief advocates taking a cross-cutting approach, integrating climate change into respective policies and programmes of the various state departments.
It also stresses on inter-disciplinary work and involving users of natural resources, besides specially emphasizing on the role of and attention to issues relating to women and other excluded groups.
The policy brief argues that interconnecting the climate change will scale up their collective impact to adapt or mitigate climate change, as opposed to taking on each of these areas as a stand-alone project.
Cross-Cutting strategies set out in the State Action Plan for Climate Change seek to strengthen the knowledge base, promoting new cost-effective and efficient technologies, institutional capacity building and establishment of a dedicated Climate Change Cell within the Environmental Planning and Coordination Organisation (EPCO).
Madhya Pradesh State Action Plan on Climate Change - Sector Policy Brief: Agriculture
The sustainable development of agriculture, horticulture, fisheries and agri-business has a special place in the development policies of the Madhya Pradesh government, given especially that seven of every 10 people in the State rely on some form of farm or allied activities for their livelihoods. This policy brief, produced as part of the Madhya Pradesh State Action Plan on Climate Change, elaborates the path to climate resilient agriculture in the State and the challenges in the way of adapting.
Farmers in Madhya Pradesh are mostly smallholders with few livelihood options and vulnerable to climatic shocks. Agriculture also suffers as groundwater resources are severely depleted. The State has an ‘Organic Farming Policy’ with the intent of using local knowledge to build sustainable livelihoods while conserving natural resources.
Yet, the effective transfer of information and investment remains a significant challenge. Measures are also being taken to improve credit and loan facilities for farmers and innovative climate-related finance schemes are being put in place to help them hedge against the risks of climate change.
Summary Policy Brief (Madhya Pradesh State Action Plan on Climate Change)
The present document presents a concise brief of the National Action Plan on Climate Change. In order to share the results of the Madhya Pradesh State Action Plan on Climate Change (SAPCC) and to address climate change concerns through development policies and programmes, the Climate Change Cell of EPCO commissioned a series of policy briefs. CDKN was tasked with producing these, based on the Madhya Pradesh SAPCC, as a Communications Project.
This brief is designed to give an overview to stakeholders about the strategies and commitments established in the SAPCC. The policy brief outlines the strategies required to strengthen development planning and build a more climate-resilient State. It aims to promote the integration of appropriate adaptation/mitigation strategies in the State’s development policies and programmes. The summary policy brief is an output from a project funded by UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) and Directorate-General for International Cooperation (DGIS) of the Netherlands for the benefit of developing countries.
Briefing Note on the Climate Science of Madhya Pradesh
The Climate Science of Madhya Pradesh is a part of Madhya Pradesh State Action Plan on Climate Change (SAPCC), which is a joint initiative of the Climate Change Cell, Environmental Planning & Coordination Organisation (EPCO) and Housing & Environment Department, Government of Madhya Pradesh.
The Climate Science briefing note not only States that climate change is taking place, but also adds that its cause is mostly down to human activity. The note also provides responses to the challenges that will ensue. Global and regional climate models, project the likely scenarios for the coming decades and century. They are an essential tool for governments to use in climate change vulnerability assessments and inform targeted mitigation and adaptation strategies.
The note outlines the strategies required to strengthen development planning and build a more climate-resilient State. It aims to promote the integration of appropriate adaptation/mitigation strategies into the State’s development policies and programmes. It is based on secondary data and promotes ‘no regret’ measures.
The document is an output of a project funded by UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) and Directorate-General for International Cooperation (DGIS) of the Netherlands for the benefit of developing countries.